Eyes, one of the most important senses. Do you need eye glasses or got eye problems? Want to know about eye exercises to reduce eye strain? Whatever we do in our day to day life, we need to think about our eye first. Whether you are driving, working, sun-bathing or reading. It is quite easy to take them for granted.


Eye is one of the most sensitive organs in our body that needs extreme care to prevent any problems or abnormalities.

Problems in vision arise due to a variety of factors e.g:

  • Illness
  • Stress
  • Age

Hence, preventive measures should be taken right from the young age to maintain healthy eyes.

In case any symptoms of problems are recognized, they need to be treated immediately.

The coloured part of the eye is called the iris, which has pigmentation that determines our eye colour. This is determined by genetics.

Most babies are born with grey or blue eyes that can darken within their first three years. Darkening occurs if melanin, a brown pigment usually not present at birth, develops with age.

The iris is a muscle that expands and contracts to control pupil size.

The pupil enlarges in dimmer lighting and grows smaller in brighter lighting. The pupil also shrinks when you focus on near objects, such as a book you are reading.

When the pupil size changes, the pigments in the iris compress or spread apart, changing the eye colour slightly.

Certain emotions can change both the pupil size and the iris colour. That’s why some people say their eyes change colours when they’re angry or loving.

1.Change in emotions.

When you are happy, your body releases a hormone that changes the size of your pupil to be bigger making your eyes look lighter.

When you cry or become sad, your eyes colour changes to reddish contrasting with the colour of the iris.

  1. Age:

As a baby your eyes are lighter colour, which darken due to genetics and melanin production.

  1. Prolonged exposure to the sun.

Exposure to sunlight will also darken your eyes, as melanin gets deposited around the pupil.

  1. Mode of dressing.

Your eyes changes colour depending with the colour of the dress and makeups you are putting on.


The colour of your eye changes when you are unwell.

  • Fogginess because of cataracts.
  • Vitiligo: complete loss of colour
  • Allergies: reddening in the whites of your eyes,
  • Yellow tinge: liver problems.
  1. Diet:

Daily changes of eye colour is due to a change of diet.

Eating a diet rich in vitamin C has a significant effect on your eye. Your eyes will look brighter if you eat plenty of citrus fruits and vegetables. Taking plenty of water also helps in keeping your eyes brighter.

  1. Sunlight: Ultraviolet A and Ultraviolet B light cause:
  • Cataracts
  • eyelid cancer
  • macular degeneration
  • wrinkles

Light eyes are at increased risk for skin cancer and certain eye diseases because they contain less of the protective pigment melanin.

But all of us are susceptible to these cancers or other conditions caused by the sun. We need to protect ourselves daily, because the damage keeps adding up.

The ideal sun glasses should:

  • Block UV light
  • Sufficient size to shield the eyes, eyelids, and surrounding areas. The more skin covered, the better.
  • Durability and impact resistant
  • Polarized lenses to eliminate glare, especially when driving, but also out in the snow or on the water, where reflection greatly magnifies glare.

Ideally, you should wear sunglasses all year round, as even on overcast days, UV can penetrate through clouds and haze.

Wrap-around styles with a comfortable, close fit and UV-protective side shields are the best as continuing glare also cause fatigue, headaches, and even migraines.

Since sunglasses and hats cannot cover your entire face, sunscreen is also important.

In the morning, some people may have slight crusty eyes due to the discharge that builds up due to excess tears or moisture, which subsequently dries out overnight.

Too much crust is usually due to eye infections, such as conjunctivitis, which is either from a bacterial or viral cause.

Puffy or swollen eyes can be caused by fluid retention, stress, allergies, hormone changes, and other factors. Crying is often accompanied by swollen eyes because the tiny glands in the eyelids that produce tears become inflamed from over activity.

For healthy lifestyle:

  • Get at least 8 hours sleep & wake up fresh
  • Drink at least 2 cups of lukewarm water when you wake up, as your body becomes dehydrated at night.
  • Eat healthy foods rich in Vitamin C & Zinc are essential e.g. Raw Carrots, citrus fruits & meat
  • For tired eyes or dry eyes, you can get artificial tear drops from Pharmacies. Keep eyes moist all the time.
  • Quit smoking, as this leads to eye damage over a period of time
  • Wear eye protection if you are doing outdoor sports e.g. hockey
  • Eat healthy foods rich in Vitamin C & Zinc, e.g.:
  • Green leafy vegetables like spinach, kale, and collards
  • Salmon, tuna, and other oily fish
  • Eggs, nuts, beans, and other nonmeat protein sources
  • Oranges and other citrus fruits or juices
  • Oysters and pork

Tired eyes (Asthenopia) occur after lengthy periods of intense focusing, e.g.:

  • Reading or driving.
  • Smartphones & other handheld electronic devices
  • Surfing the Internet or reading text messages or emails on a smartphone can be extremely taxing to the visual system, as the eyes must strain to read the often tiny fonts.

The condition is caused by a shortage of brain activity that is required for proper focusing and eye-muscle coordination.

Staring at a computer over long periods cause:

Tips to Avoid Asthenopia

  • Make sure your glasses or contacts prescription is right
  • Move the screen so your eyes are level with the top of the monitor.
  • Try to avoid glare from windows and lights.

Use an anti-glare screen if needed.

  • Choose a comfortable, supportive chair.

Position it so that your feet are flat on the floor.

  • Every 20 minutes of use, look away from your computer at a far distance or take a break for 20 seconds.
  • Increase the font size on computers and handheld devices.
  • Use proper lighting for intense near-point tasks.
  • Blink often.
  • See your optician if symptoms persist.

Eye exercises are designed to strengthen your eye muscles, improve focusing, eye movements, and stimulate the vision centre of your brain.

  • Palm your eyes:

Doing this will reduce stimuli to your eyes and brain. Closing your eyes and applying light pressure to them will spread the tear film in your eyes evenly and relax them.

  • Massage your eyes.

This will help to improve blood circulation around your eyes and face.

  • Focus:

Strengthen your eyes’ near and far focusing, by concentrating on a subject about 20” away for 15 seconds, followed by focussing on an object 20 feet away for 15 seconds.